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Gibraltar is a limestone promontory located off the southern tip of Spain It is 1,396 feet high. The sovereignty of Gibraltar was transferred to the Great Britain together with Minorca by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 after the War of the Spanish Succession. The Rock of Gibraltar was known in classical times as one of the Pillars of Hercules, the other pillar being Jebel Musa on the African side of the Strait of Gibraltar. Its name is derived from the Arabic Jebel al Tariq, or Mount of Tariq, the Moorish invader of Spain in 711 AD. The permanent population of Gibraltar is an ethnic mixture from around the Mediterranean Sea with the addition of British settlers. They are known as "Scorpions".

History of British Gibraltar

Following the ceding of Gibraltar in perpetuity to Britain by Spain in the Treaty of Utrecht, Spain made a number of attempts to negotiate its return. These were all refused. Spain also made a military attempt to recover the Rock by a siege in 1727.

Later in 1779 during the American Revolutionary War, Spain declared war on Britain and laid siege to Gibraltar. This became known as the Great Siege and lasted from July 1779 to February 1783 with many assaults and a attempted blockade during which the garrison was supplied by the Royal Navy. It was during the siege that the British began building the defensive systems of batteries and tunnels carved within the rock.

In the Canon

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